Present Perfect spelling

Grammar explanations Present Perfect diagram
Present Perfect form
Present Perfect use
Present Perfect spelling
Present Perfect signal words
Exercises Present Perfect Simple

The spelling rules for Present Perfect Tense in building past participle of regular verbs.

Rule   Infinitive Past participle
verbs ending with -e -d phone phoned
smile smiled
agree agreed
lie lied
verbs NOT ending with -e -ed ask asked
clean cleaned
follow followed
video videoed
verbs ending with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel double their consonant   beg begged
rub rubbed
in two-syllable verbs the last consonant double when the last syllable is stressed and it contains a single consonant preceded by vowel prefer preferred
refer referred
occur occurred
-y turns into -i if it is preceded by a consonant -ed carry carried
deny denied
fry fried
try tried