Bezokolicznik lub gerund po czasownikach

Gramatyczne objaśnienia

Bezokolicznik z 'to'
Bezokolicznik i gerund - różnice w znaczeniu
Bezokolicznik po czasownikach
Bezokolicznik lub gerund po czasownikach



Istnieje w języku angielskim grupa czasowników po których można używać albo formy bezokolicznikowej z TO lub formy gerund, czyli z końcówką ING. Używając jednej z tych form należy pamiętać, że mogą wystąpić określone różnice w znaczeniu zdań. Poniżej można znaleźć przykłady zastosowania obu tych form.

A. Jako dopełnienie (bezpośrednio po czasowniku). Niektóre z tych czasowników i zwrotów czasownikowych mają różne znaczenia, gdy zastosujemy formę bezokolicznika z TO lub formę gerund ( z końcówką - ing).

Czasownik Znaczenie Zdania
attempt make an effort at
I attempted to speak but I was told to keep quiet.
The patient attempted walking, but soon fell down.
begin start; take the first step He began to tell us the plot in great detail.
She rolled up her sleeves and began unpacking the basket.
can't bear can't put up with; can't endure; can't suffer He can't bear to be laughed at.
He can't bear being laughed at.
can't stand can't bear; can't put up with I can't stand to wait.
I can't stand waiting.
cease stop You never cease to amaze me.
The teacher told him to cease his whistling.
commence begin; start After the election, the new government commenced to develop the roads.
They have commenced studying law.
continue go on doing or being something; keep on with After graduating I continued to devote myself to research.
He continued playing the piano long after everyone had left.
deserve be entitled to; merit; be worthy of getting He deserves to be treated well after all he has done.
He deserves being treated well after all he has done.
dislike consider unpleasant; not like I dislike to go there.
I dislike going there.
dread fear greatly I dread to think what will happen if we're late.
He dreads meeting people.
endure stand; tolerate; bear (especially in negative) She can't endure to see ani¬mals cruelly treated.
She can't endure seeing ani¬mals cruelly treated.
forget fail to keep in mem¬ory; lose the remembrance of; neglect He forgot (= neglected) to tell her about it.
He forgot (= lost the memory of) having told her about it.
go on do or say something next; proceed to; continue He went on (- proceeded next) to explain why that point was important.
It went on (= continued) raining all day.
hate strongly dislike Some people hate to get up early in the morning.
I hate having to get up early.
intend plan; have in mind as a purpose or plan What do you intend to do today?
What do you intend doing about that?
like enjoy; be fond of; take pleasure in I like to read in bed, but I don't like having meals in bed.
loathe dislike intensely I loathe to wash dishes.
He loathes travelling by air.
love like very much; take great pleasure in She loves to have a lot of young people around her.
She loves having a lot of young people around her.
mean intend, have as a purpose; signify, have the consequence of I didn't mean to be rude to you.
These new orders will mean working overtime.
need require; be necessary You need to learn the value of money.
This chapter needs rewriting.
neglect omit or fail to do something (usually because of carelessness or forgetfulness) Don't neglect to lock the door when you leave.
Don't neglect locking the door when you leave.
omit neglect or fail to do something Please don't omit to say who wrote it.
Please don't omit saying who wrote it.
prefer like better; choose one thing rather than another I prefer to work in the morning.
I prefer working in the morning.
regret be or feel sorry for or about I regret to inform you that we cannot publish it.
I regret having said that.
remember take care not to forget; keep in mind; recall to mind I promise you I'll remember to post your letter.
Certainly I posted your letter — I remember doing it.
require need The matter requires to be thought over.
The seedlings will require looking after.
start begin It started to rain.
It started raining.
try attempt; make an effort; do as a test He tried to stand on his head, but he couldn't.
Try putting in some more vinegar; see if that helps.
want desire, wish; need, require I want to go to Toronto this weekend. Your hair wants cutting.

B. Po następujących czasownikach należy użyć formy gerund, czyli zakończonej na -ing, kiedy drugi czasownik jest użyty jako dopełnienie ( bezpośrednio występując po czasowniku ) lub formy bezokolicznika kiedy drugi czasownik uzupełnieniem dopełnienia ( występując po rzeczowniku or zaimku ).

Czasownik Znaczenie Zdania
acknowledge admit; agree to the truth of He acknowledged having done it.
They acknowledged him to be the best player in the Asian Games.
admit confess; acknowledge He admitted stealing the necklace.
You must admit the task to be difficult.
advise recommend; give advice to I don't advise going by car — there's no place to park.
I advise you to take the train.
consider think about; regard, think to be I'm considering going abroad.
We consider it to be of strategic importance.
imagine think of something as probable; form a picture or idea in the mind I can't imagine marrying a girl like that.
I imagine her to be both pretty and gentle.